Climate change is one of the most important current challenges faced by living organisms . Identifying and understanding the effects of climate change on biological systems is therefore vital for predicting impacts on population persistence and targeting conservation efforts (Rosenzweig et al. 2008; IPCC 2014) . For instance, socio-economic studies suggest that the alteration of resource availability and quality induced by climate change is likely to promote the occurrence of conflicts in human societies (Barnett and Adger 2007; Barnett et al. 2007). Hence anthropologists and socio-economists predict that climate change may undermine the social structure of populations (Barnett and Adger 2007; Nordås and Gleditsch 2007). Following this rationale, an increase in competition and therefore the frequency of conflicts is also likely to occur in non-human social species for the same reasons (i.e. climate-change induced alteration of resources). Furthermore, climate change is expected to intensify the level of heat stress experienced by endotherm species such as birds (McKechnie and Wolf 2010; du Plessis et al. 2012). Heat stress is predicted to be particularly pronounced in deserts because, in such arid environments, evaporating water can create serious risks of dehydration, leading to reduced activity (Cunningham et al. 2015) and physiological damages (Dawson 1954) which may ultimately result in deleterious impacts on reproduction (Cunningham et al. 2013) or survival of the individuals (e.g. thousands of budgerigars were killed in the 2009 Australian heat wave: Towie 2009; McKechnie and Wolf 2010). Such heat stress may have additional effects on the social structure of groups as stress is known to shape social interactions between individuals. Consequently, the increases in the frequency of conflicts and in the severity of heat stress are likely to impact the social structure of group-living passerines of the Kalahari Desert. However, while this hypothesis has clearly been formulated in humans, it has never been tested. In this innovative project, we aim to test whether the nature, distribution and frequency of social relationships are linked to air temperatures in order to investigate whether elevated temperatures may undermine the social structure of a group.